Dozens of COVID-19 vaccines are being developed. New Updates 2021
There are more than 150 coronavirus vaccines in development around the world, and people hope to put them on the market in record time to alleviate the global crisis. To make this goal possible, a number of efforts are underway, including the U.S. government’s “Quick Action” plan, which has pledged $10 billion to develop and deliver 300 million safe and effective doses by January 2021. Of the coronavirus vaccine. The World Health Organization is also working to coordinate the global development of vaccines, with a view to delivering 2 billion doses by the end of 2021.
As with all vaccines, the main purpose of these drug candidates is to guide the immune system to enhance its defence capabilities, which are sometimes stronger than those provided by natural infections and have less impact on health.
For this reason, some vaccines use the entire coronavirus but are in a dead or weakened state. Others use only part of the virus, whether it is a protein or a fragment. Some transfer coronavirus proteins to another virus, which is unlikely to cause disease, or even unable to cause disease. Finally, some vaccines under development rely on the deployment of coronavirus genetic material, so our cells can temporarily produce coronavirus proteins needed to stimulate the immune system. (What kind of vaccine is this and how it works.)
It usually takes 10 to 15 years to bring a vaccine to the market. In the 1960s, the fastest mumps vaccine in history came out. Vaccines go through a multi-stage clinical trial process, first of all to check their safety and whether they will trigger an immune response in a small group of healthy people. The second phase expands the scope of testing to include people who may have the disease or are more likely to contract the disease to assess the effectiveness of the vaccine. Since the immune response varies with age, race or basic health status, the third stage can expand the vaccine library to thousands to ensure that vaccines are safe and effective in many people. Then, it needs regulatory approval-which in itself can be a long process.
Even if the vaccine is approved, it will face potential obstacles in manufacturing and distribution, from the expansion of production scale to meeting demand, to deciding which people should get the vaccine first, and at what cost. Many vaccines are still in the fourth stage, the permanent stage of regular research. (Here is how we know when to prepare the COVID-19 vaccine.)
TODAY CORONA CASES (COVID-19) UPDATES in 2021
Russian scientists published the first report on their coronavirus vaccine, saying that early tests showed signs of an immune response.
According to a report published in the medical journal The Lancet, each participant has developed anti-viral antibodies without serious side effects.
Russia was the first to license the vaccine locally in August (before the data was released).
Experts say that the scale of the trial is too small to prove effectiveness and safety.
But Moscow praised this result as an answer to critics. Some Western experts have raised concerns about the speed of work in Russia, suggesting that researchers may cut corners.
Last month, President Vladimir Putin (Vladimir Putin) stated that the vaccine had passed all necessary inspections and that one of his own daughters had been vaccinated.
What does the report say?
The Lancet reported that the vaccine was tested in two trials called Sputnik-V between June and July. Each participant included 38 healthy volunteers, who received a certain dose of the vaccine three weeks later, and then received a booster vaccine.
Participants (aged between 18 and 60) were monitored for 42 days, and they all developed antibodies within three weeks. The most common side effects are headache and joint pain.
The trial is open-label and there is no randomization, which means that there is no placebo and the volunteers know they are receiving the vaccine.
The report said: “Large-scale long-term trials, including placebo comparisons and further monitoring are needed to establish the long-term safety and effectiveness of vaccines against Covid-19 infection.”
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The paper stated that the third phase of the trial will involve 40,000 volunteers from “different age and risk groups.”
The Russian vaccine uses a highly adaptable strain of adenovirus (a virus that usually causes the common cold) to trigger an immune response.
There’s still a long way to go
The reaction of British scientists was “encouraging” and “everything is good so far”, but obviously there is still a long way to go. Although the vaccine showed antibody responses in all participants in Phase 2, this does not necessarily mean that it will protect them from viral infections. Not yet established.
From these results, it can be seen that the vaccine seems to be safe for 42 days in healthy people between 18 and 60 years old, because that is how long the study lasted. But what about the elderly and those in underlying health conditions who are most at risk of Covid-19? For them, and for a longer period of time, how safe is it?
This question can only be answered after a larger, longer-term randomized trial. The people participating in the trial do not know whether they are receiving the vaccine or taking a virtual injection. These will also tell scientists how effective this vaccine is actually in a wider population.
There are also calls for openness and transparency. Of the many vaccines currently being tested around the world, some may be better than others in certain situations and in certain populations. Therefore, it is important to know exactly how they work and who they work for-a vaccine cannot be suitable for everyone.
What has the reaction been?
Kirill Dmitriev, the head of the Russian investment fund behind the vaccine, said at a press conference that the report “is a powerful response to doubters who unreasonably criticize the Russian vaccine.”
He said that 3,000 people have been recruited for the next phase of the trial.
Russian Health Minister Mikhail Murashko (Mikhail Murashko) said that Russia will start vaccination in November or December, focusing on high-risk groups.
But experts warn that there is still a long way to go before the vaccine enters the market.
Brendan Wen, a professor of microbiological pathology at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, told Reuters: “This report is a “good so far” case.
According to the World Health Organization, 176 potential vaccines are currently being developed globally. Among them, 34 people are currently being tested. Among them, eight are in the third stage and are the most advanced.
Daily Briefing: Current status of COVID-19 vaccine development.
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Expert panel says “CRISPR babies” are still too risky
Gene editing in human embryos may one day prevent certain parents from passing on serious genetic diseases to their offspring, but it should only be considered in rare cases. So far, the technology has not been proven to be safe or effective. This is the conclusion of a panel of experts convened by the National Academy of Medicine, the National Academy of Sciences, and the Royal Society, which published a report on heritable human genome editing. The group was formed after genomics researcher He Jiankui issued a shocking statement. He reported in November 2018 that he created the first “CRISPR baby.”
President Trump asserted on Friday that the coronavirus vaccine is likely to be on sale next month, which contradicts the government’s chief scientific adviser responsible for accelerating vaccine production. The discussion came after the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention told all states and U.S. territories that they were ready to provide vaccines for health care workers and other high-priority groups on November 1. The government was eager for political reasons. The vaccine was approved before election day on November 3.
The Minister of Health and Human Services, Alex Azar, denied that the federal government’s schedule for distributing vaccines on November 1 was related to the presidential election two days later.